In this introduction to historical documents, the class comes up with a list of the kinds of documents (primary sources) that historians of the future might use to understand our world hundreds of years from now. Students then choose five primary sources that they think will best describe their own lives for future historians
- Students are given the following scenario:
A historian of the twenty-third century, feeling that teenagers have been misunderstood throughout time, wants to write a history of teenagers, beginning in early twenty-first century Canada. The historian wants to know about all aspects of teenage life, from work, family life and formal education to leisure activities, social life and personal issues of concern to the twenty-first century teenager.
Ask students: how do historians learn about the past?
a) What records will individual students in the class leave behind that this historian might use to understand that person’s life?
- Explain that while historians read a lot of things written by other historians, the books and articles they write are based on their own research into evidence created in the past – called primary documents -- which have been preserved up to the present. Historians use these documents to make INFERENCES about life in the past.
- Familiarize students with the concept of INFERENCE by asking students what kinds of inferences they might make about a society if they were an alien from another planet who encountered a common object from our world: a soccer ball, a coat or any other commonly used object in the classroom. Examples might include “the society had the technology to create plastics,” or “the society had enough wealth to make a lot of useless objects,” or “people must have loved music.”
- Students are asked to work in pairs to brainstorm the following question:
b) What records about that person’s life will have been created, and might be preserved for that historian to find?
- After 5-10 minutes, write all of their responses on the board, encouraging students,
if needed with the following suggestions: (issues that you might like to raise about
the creation, preservation and interpretation of the source are in brackets)
- diaries and journals (Who will keep them? Will they make it into
a public archives, as hundreds of thousands have in the past? What will they tell
- e-mails (Will they be preserved? Will they be machine readable
in the future? What will they tell historians?)
- VISA and other credit card bills (Where will they be stored? Will
historians have access to them? What will they tell historians?)
- home movies (Will the technology still exist to view them? What
will they tell historians?)
- photographs (Who will preserve them? Will they be in public archives?
What will they tell historians?)
- school records (kept by school and then by the provincial archives,
as required by law; who will have access to them in the future? If they are kept
by individuals, who will preserve them and who will have access to them? What will
they tell historians?)
- school work (How will it be preserved? What will it tell historians?)
- clothing (How will someone in the future understand what the clothing
- music (How will someone in the future understand what the music
means? Will the technology exist to listen to it?)
- court records (Juvenile court records may become part of the public
domain after 100 years.)
- census records (Every Canadian will appear on the census if they
are in Canada in a Census year, even though their individual information will not
be available to historians for 96 years.)
- birth, marriage and death records (What might these tell someone
in the future about teenage life: i.e. AIDS statistics, car accidents, teenage pregnancy
Divide students once again into groups of 2 or 3 and distribute the following chart. Give the students the following task:
Choose three sources from the list on the board (or other sources they can think of) that would give a historian of the future THE BEST understanding of their life, and explain why.
On an overhead, go over one example with the students (Visa bills, for example), filling in the spaces as demonstrated, or as students suggest, filling in all three columns:
What information/ evidence about me will this primary source give to historians
of the future?
What makes this “good evidence” about me and my life?
What inferences about teenage life might the historian make from this evidence?
1) Best source
How I spent my money, or at least some of it,
The things that I buy are a good reflection of what I like, and what I care about
- teenagers like to buy things
- teenagers had money to buy things (i.e. they were not totally poor)
- teenagers bought different things from each other and from adults
2) Second best
3) Third best
After students have completed the sheet, select three or four groups to present
their first choice, and discuss.
There are a wide variety of lessons that teachers can do in the classroom relating
to the exploration of primary documents, depending on the time available and the
grade level. They might include the following:
- ask students to keep a journal of the documents they create in a given week, of
the “traces” that they are leaving behind for future historians to find;
- ask students to create a journal, diary or short essay that they might leave for
historians of the future;
- get students to create a time capsule that best represents their lives, the lives
of their family, or their school in the twentieth century;
- have students write a history of their lives, or of their family based only on the
documentary evidence available in their home.